Maximizing Impact

Innovative solutions to meet global water challenges



Citywide Inclusive Sanitation as a Public Service

Please download our new reports which review the CWIS functions - ResponsibilityAccountability and Resource Planning & Management 



To achieve the SDGs and to support safe, healthy urban living environments, sanitation services must be organized into public service systems. The concept of Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) was proposed to address an urgent growing need to focus public and especially government attention on the need to shift priorities from narrow, expensive and limited infrastructure-investment focused "solutions" to service focused mandates, accountability systems, and resource planning and management. To understand how to change and improve systems, we must start by seeking to understand the incentives of key actors. With that foundation, we can then identify what institutional changes are needed to incentivise those actors (citizens, private companies, and public agencies) to continuously find ways to deliver and improve services in the context of a city's constantly changing resource levels, challenges, and needs. To understand incentives around public services in any city-country context, these papers explore three fundamental questions:

  • Who is responsible for what service outcomes?

  • How are they held accountable for that responsibility?

  • How are they resourced to plan and manage their responsibility?


about us

Climate change, rapid population growth, and increasing demand for water has resulted in governments and businesses having to rethink how they manage scarce water resources to achieve their social, economic and environmental goals.

Bluechain Consulting offers advisory services and technical assistance to governments, development partners, and private sector clients to maximise the impact of their investments in the water and sanitation sector. We are specialists in supporting our clients to manage natural resources, achieve sustainable growth, and contribute to poverty reduction. 


Bluechain Consulting has a proven track record of improving the operational efficiency of our clients, by strengthening systems, supporting evidence based decision making and the adoption of new service delivery and financing models.


Bluechain Consulting has a wealth of experience and a comprehensive range of technical expertise across Africa and Asia.


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